Using Multiple Models to Explore Psychological Type


While we often think of type as just a single model-a single way of looking at human interactions-it is actually quite rich because the whole of "type" is a cluster of related compatible models: 16 whole types, functions in their attitudes, type development, temperament, interaction styles and so on. They are part of the "type family."

1) Compatible models:
The multiple models within type theory are not reducible to a single model. They are compatible but distinct and complementary without contradicting each other.


Type Bias in Group Activities


I first became aware of a potential bias problem at the APT conference in Phoenix when I went to a session that grouped people by functional pairs. In the ST group there was one person, ISTJ, and in the SF group there were two people, both ISFJ. As I listened to the report outs from these two groups, I noticed the influence of the Guardian temperament theme as well as their preferences for Sensing and Feeling processes. It was richer and more meaningful than when I've seen similar break outs with SFP and SFJ both in the SF group and STP and STJ in the ST group.  more »

Temperament -- Frequently Asked Question's

Roots and Branches: Multiple models of type



I believe type espouses a number of models which complement each other nicely. The "ethics quest" of type suggests that we should welcome into our home (at least as visitors) all models that further that quest.

In looking at multiple models of type, it seems to me that there are five basic touch-points:

  1. The ethics quest
  2. The type family
  3. The need for multiple models
  4. Using multiple models
  5. Philosophical roots

    The Ethics Quest

Roadblocks and Short Cuts to Using Multiple Models


For many people, type theory has came to stand for several ways of getting at the 16 types: functions in their attitudes (a.k.a. cognitive processes), temperament with interaction styles, 16 whole types, and the 4-letter code. These models seem to address different levels of the personality - they interlock without limiting, fit without contradicting. Over the years, I have observed some patterns in how people relate to the idea of "using" (or "juggling" or "advocating" or "seeing"...) multiple models.  more »

Personality Assesment - Instruments and Feedback


Various models look at personality differences for the purposes of career decisions, life planning, job assignment and team building. Most personality assessment is done through self-report with individual response to items varying according to mind set, vocabulary, life experience, culture and so on. The usefulness of the model is determined by the accuracy of both the model and the instrument used. If the instrument and the resulting descriptions do not accurately describe the individual, the model will be rejected.  more »

Into the Next Century—Temperament Evolution


Organizations have become increasingly desperate to find new ways to improve their adaptability to change.  And the rate of change will only accelerate. The world has been flattened, we are a global, interconnected network and must interact with diverse sets of individuals, groups and communities.  The models we use to try to assist organizations in this complex global environment therefore need to have built-in flexibility so they can grow and change—as everything does.  more »

Interaction Styles - Frequently Asked Questions


From Understanding Yourself and Others®: An Introduction to Interaction Styles 1.0 and 2.0  more »

How to tell iNtuiting from extraverted Sensing


Over the last four years, in the MBTI® Qualifying Programs, advanced programs and elsewhere, we found a disproportionate number of people who had reported preferences for the iNtuiting process while their behaviors seemed to resemble the Artisan-SP temperament pattern. This raised some questions such as: What is the relationship between temperament and Jung's typology? Can someone have one type and a different temperament? If not, what is going on here?  more »

The Sixteen Personality Types

Convergence of Models—The Whole Self  more »